Fruchtbere Healmoanne: ferskil tusken ferzjes

gjin bewurkingsgearfetting
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== Cosmopolitan diffusion==
Modern analyses<ref name="PNAS">C. Loring Brace, Noriko Seguchi, Conrad B. Quintyn, Sherry C. Fox, A. Russell Nelson, Sotiris K. Manolis, and Pan Qifeng, "The questionable contribution of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age to European craniofacial form," in [[PNAS|Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences]] of the [[USA]] (Jan. 3, 2006). Vol. 103, No. 1, pp. 242-247. [] [ doi: 10.1073/pnas.0509801102]</ref><ref>F. X. Ricaut, M. Waelkens, "Cranial Discrete Traits in a Byzantine Population and Eastern Mediterranean Population Movements," in [[Human Biology]], [[Wayne State University Press]] (Aug. 2008). Vol. 80, Issue 5, pp. 535-564. [] [ doi: 10.3378/1534-6617-80.5.535]</ref> comparing 24 craniofacial measurements reveal a predominantly cosmopolitan population within the pre-[[Neolithic]], [[NeolithicNeolitikum]] and [[Bronze AgeBrûnstiid]] Fertile Crescent,<ref name="PNAS" /> supporting the view that a diverse population of peoples occupied this region during these time periods.<ref name="PNAS" /> In particular, evidence demonstrates a strong [[Sub-Saharan Africa]]n presence within the region, especially among the [[Epipalaeolithic]] [[Natufian culture|Natufian]]s of [[Israel]].<ref name="PNAS" /><ref>Barker G (2002) Transitions to farming and pastoralism in North Africa, in Bellwood P, Renfrew C (2002), ''Examining the Farming/Language Dispersal Hypothesis'', pp 151–161.</ref><ref>Bar-Yosef O (1987) Pleistocene connections between Africa and SouthWest Asia: an archaeological perspective. ''The African Archaeological Review''; Chapter 5, pg 29-38</ref><ref>Kislev ME, Hartmann A, Bar-Yosef O (2006) Early domesticated fig in the Jordan Valley. ''Nature'' 312:1372–1374.</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Lancaster|first=Andrew|year=2009|url=|journal=Journal of Genetic Genealogy|volume=5|issue=1|title=Y Haplogroups, Archaeological Cultures and Language Families: a Review of the Multidisciplinary Comparisons using the case of E-M35}}</ref><ref>Findings include remains of food items carried to the [[Levant]] from [[AfricaAfrika]] —— [[Parthenocarpic]] [[ficus|fig]]s (please refer to prior reference: Kislev, Hartmann, Bar-Yosef, ''Nature,'' 2006) and [[Nile]] [[shellfish]] (please refer to [[Natufian culture#Long distance exchange]]).</ref> Similar arguments do not hold true, however, for the [[Basque people|Basque]]s and [[Canary Island]]ers of the same time period, as the studies demonstrate those ancient peoples to be "clearly associated with modern Europeans."<ref name="PNAS" /> Additionally no evidence from the studies demonstrates [[Cro-Magnon]] influences, contrary to former suggestions.<ref name="PNAS" />
The studies further suggest a [[Demic diffusion|diffusion]] of this diverse population away from the Fertile Crescent, with the early migrants moving away from the [[Near East]] —— westward into [[Europe]] and [[North Africa]], northward to [[CrimeaKrim]], and eastward to [[MongoliaMongoalje]].<ref name="PNAS" /> They took their agricultural practices with them and interbred with the [[hunter-gatherer]]s whom they subsequently came in contact with while perpetuating their farming practices. This supports prior [[Genetics|genetic]]<ref>Chicki, L; Nichols, RA; Barbujani, G; Beaumont, MA. 2002. [ Y genetic data support the Neolithic demic diffusion model]. ''Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci''. 99(17): 11008-11013.</ref><ref>[ Estimating the Impact of Prehistoric Admixture on the Genome of Europeans, Dupanloup et al., 2004]</ref><ref>[ Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area, 2004]</ref><ref>[ Paleolithic and Neolithic lineages in the European mitochondrial gene pool, Cavalli-Sforza 1997.]</ref><ref>[ Clines of nuclear DNA markers suggest a largely Neolithic ancestry of the European gene, Chikhi 1997.]</ref> and [[Archaeology|archaeological]]<ref name="PNAS" /><ref>M. Zvelebil, in ''Hunters in Transition: Mesolithic Societies and the Transition to Farming,'' M. Zvelebil (editorredaksje), Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK (1986) pp. 5-15, 167–188.</ref><ref>P. Bellwood, ''First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies,'' Blackwell: Malden, MA (2005).</ref><ref>M. Dokládal, J. Brožek, ''Curr. Anthropol. 2'' (1961) ppsdn. 455–477.</ref><ref>O. Bar-Yosef, ''Evol. Anthropol. 6'' (1998) pp. 159–177.</ref><ref>M. Zvelebil, ''Antiquity 63'' (1989) ppsdn. 379–383.</ref> studies which have all arrived at the same conclusion.
Consequently contemporary [[in-situ]] peoples absorbed the agricultural way of life of those early migrants who ventured out of the FertileFruchtbere CrescentSichte. This is contrary to the suggestion that the spread of agriculture disseminated out of the Fertile Crescent by way of sharing of knowledge.<ref name="PNAS" /> Instead the view now supported by a preponderance of the evidence is that it occurred by actual migration out of the region, coupled with subsequent interbreeding with indigenous local populations whom the migrants came in contact with.<ref name="PNAS" />
The studies show also that not all present day [[Europe]]ansJeropeërs share strong genetic affinities to the [[Neolithic]] and [[Bronze Age]] inhabitants of the Fertile Crescent;<ref name="PNAS" /> instead the closest ties to the Fertile Crescent rest with [[Southern Europe]]ansSúdjeopanen.<ref name="PNAS" /> The same study further demonstrates all present day [[Europe]]ansJeropeanen to be closely related.<ref name="PNAS" />